Bihar is one of the most
important states in the Hindi heartland of India. It is
situated on the banks of the river Ganges. The river Ganges flows through the
state and passes through districts of Buxar, Bhojpur, Chapra, Patna, Vaishali,
Begusarai and Bhagalpur. In the north, the Bihar state has common borders with
the Nepal. In the east, it is bound by west Bengal and in the west by Uttar
Pradesh. In the south, it borders Jharkhand state, which was created after
bifurcation of Bihar. The state of Bihar has got very fertile land in the Ganges
river catchments but the areas in Southern Bihar is murramy and not very
fertile. The Important rivers of the state are Ganga, Son,Koshi and Gandak.
Distribution of the Forests:
The state has got natural sal forests in the district of West
Champaran in the terai region of shivaliks. Besides, Sal
forests are abundant in the southern Bihar in the districts of
Kaimur,Rohatas,Aurangabad,Gaya,Jamui,Munger and Banka. The West Champaran
district has moist deciduous Sal forest while south Bihar has dry deciduous Sal
Forests. Most of the Natural Forests are notified as
protected Forests. The Distribution of Forests in the Bihar State is as follows:
The state of Bihar presently has 6845 sq km
notified natural forest area which is 7.27 % of the geographical area of the
state. These natural forests are spread in the districts of West Champaran,
Kaimur, Rohtas, Aurangabad, Gaya, Jahanabad, Nawada, Nalanda,Munger,Banka and
Jamui. The north Bihar except West Champaran is devoid of Natural Forests.
The Plant Species Composition:
The important Tree
species of Bihar are Sal (Shorea robusta), Shisham, Teak, Gamhar, Kadamb, Semal
,Neem Peepal Bargad,Arjun, Asan, Haldu,Mahua and Kend etc .
Important wildlife species of Bihar:
The State of Bihar is rich in wild animals. The important
Terrestrial species are Tiger , Leopard, Bear, Hyena, Bison, Chital,
etc. Besides there are many varieties of Crocodile,
Magars and Fishes, Gangetic turtles in River systems. Bihar has got the
privilege of having the National Aquetic animal , Fresh water Dolphin in the
River Ganges,Kosi ,Gandak, Mahanada and Paimar rivers of the state etc.
Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary has been notified at Bhagalpur portion of
the River Ganges. Bihar is also famous for different wetlands and many varieties
of local bird species as well as migratory birds.
Natural wetlands like Kanwar lake, Baraila lake, Kusheshwar nath Lake, Udaypur
lake and man made lakes
Nagi Dam& Nakti Dam have been declared as
Bird Sanctuary. The Bihar has breeding population of greater adjutants in
Naugachia area of Bhagalpur district. The state has constructed a Rescue and
Rehabilitation centre at Bhagalpur.
Forest and wildlife Administration:
Principal Secretary, Environment and Forest Department is in charge of the
Department in the Government of Bihar who functions under the Hon'ble Minister,
Environment and Forest Department. Principal Chief Conservator of Forest, Bihar
is in overall charge of the Department at Directorate Level. At Head quarter
level, PCCF Development controls the Developmental activities of the Department.
APCCF Wildlife is the Chief wildlife warden of the state and controls the wild
life administration of the state. Working plan, extension and training matters
are controlled by APCCF, Working Plan. Forest conservation Act and CAMPA Matters
are controlled by APCCF CAMPA.
The Environmental related matters in the state are
controlled at the level of Bihar Pollution Control Board and Principal
Secretary, Environment and Forest and Advisor, Environment at the Government